Recently, proactive systems such as Google Now and Microsoft Cortana have become increasingly popular in reforming the way users access information on mobile devices. In these systems, relevant content is presented to users based on their context without a query in the form of information cards that do not require a click to satisfy the users. As a result, prior approaches based on clicks cannot provide reliable measurements of user satisfaction with such systems. It is also unclear how much of the previous findings regarding good abandonment with reactive Web searches can be applied to these proactive systems due to the intrinsic difference in user intent, the greater variety of content types and their presentations.
In this paper, we present the first large-scale analysis of viewing behavior based on the viewport (the visible fraction of a Web page) of the mobile devices, towards measuring user satisfaction with the information cards of the mobile proactive systems. In particular, we identified and analyzed a variety of factors that may influence the viewing behavior, including biases from ranking positions, the types and attributes of the information cards, and the touch interactions with the mobile devices. We show that by modeling the various factors we can better measure user satisfaction with the mobile proactive systems, enabling stronger statistical power in large-scale online A/B testing.