Cloud systems require elastic resource allocation to minimize resource provisioning costs while meeting service level objectives (SLOs). In this paper, we present a novel PRedictive Elastic reSource Scaling (PRESS) scheme for cloud systems. PRESS unobtrusively extracts ﬁne-grained dynamic patterns in application resource demands and adjust their resource allocations automatically. Our approach leverages light-weight signal processing and statistical learning algorithms to achieve online predictions of dynamic application resource requirements. We have implemented the PRESS system on Xen and tested it using RUBiS and an application load trace from Google. Our experiments show that we can achieve good resource prediction accuracy with less than 5% over-estimation error and near zero under-estimation error, and elastic resource scaling can both signiﬁcantly reduce resource waste and SLO violations.